Tulostoma rufum Lloyd (Fig. 132; Pl.XI:1) - The Tylostomeae, p. 18, pl. 79, fig. 4. 1906.
Etym.: The name probably refers to the dark reddish brown colour of Ehi mouth and/or stem.
Spore-sac up to 10 mm, globose. Exoperidium hyphal, with threads mingled with sand grains. Endoperidium tan to isabelline, darker at the base, finally almost smooth. Mouth tubular, small, dark reddish brown. Socket not discernible. Glebaerrugineous. Stem fibrillose-sulcate to squamu ose, peeling off in scales, reddish brown, straight, up to 30 x 3 mm, ending basally in a small mycelial bulb.
Spores distinctly echinulate, the spines broad-based, some anastomosed under LM, 6.4-8.5 Âµm diam, dark brown; under SEM the ornamentation appears as short, scantily anastomosed cristae, or between conic pyramidal "spines" formed by a few elements open at the base and fused at the apex, and transversely sulcate, as in certain peristomes of Musci. Capillitium coloured, wavy, branched, septate; threads 3.4-9.3 Âµm diam, thickwalled with visible lumen, not much swollen at the uncoloured septa.
Habitat: on soil, among litter.
Distribution: North America: SE United States and possibly the Caribbean. I have also found it in South African and European collections.
Lectotype (selected): United States, Alabama, Spring Hill, leg. Bertolet (Herb. Lloyd no 25.542, BPI!).