Bottomley AM. 1948. Gasteromycetes of South Africa. Bothalia 4: 473-810.
as Phellorina strobilina Kalchbrenner [Plate LXXII.]
ex Kalchbrenner & Cooke, Grevillea 9 (1880) 4.
Sacc. Syll. Fung. 17 (1905) 239; Verwoerd, Ann. Univ. Stell. 3 (1925) 14.
G. H. Cunningham, Gastero. (1944) 194.
Scleroderma strobilina Kalchbr. ex Thuem., Grev. 4 (1875) 74. Phellorina squamosa Kalchbr. et MacOwan in Kalchbrenner, Grev. 10 (1882) 109. Areolaria strobilina Kalchbr., Ertek. Term. 8 (1884) 8. Xylopodium ochroleucum Cooke et Massee ex Cooke, Grev. 15 (1887) 95.
Plants 6.5-15 cm. high. Peridium 3.5-6 cm. high, 2.5-7.5 cm. wide, depressed globose or less often subglobose. Exoperidium pure white at first, becoming dirty white, pale ochraceous or pale brown, covered with zoned, usually angular, pyramidal warts which are up to 1.5 cm. high and 2.5 cm. broad at the more or less angular, expanded base. Endoperidium whitish to leaden coloured, tough, membranaceous, smooth, shining. Stalk 5-12 x 1-2 cm., white, cream, ochraceous, thick, solid, woody; smooth, deeply striate-sulcate or sparsely or thickly covered with large erect scales; straight, curved or crooked, equal or attenated toward the base, bulbous or not. Gleba finally rusty brown, compact, becoming pulverulent and falling away.
Capillitium threads scanty, hyaline, shred-like. Spores globose, finely verrucose, pale ochraceous brown, 4.5-7 u, average size rather smaller than in P. inquinans.
Habitat: sand, sandy soil, heavy black turf; solitary or occasionally caespitose.